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Ernest G. C. Graham's

1792 - 1970

In Springfield, New Brunswick

In my opinion the teacher was the boss of the school but after listening to a conversation between Alice and Gramp as they discussed the problems another district was having with finding a suitable first class teacher, I had second thoughts on the matter. It seemed that a fellow called  County Superintendent had not given the proposed teacher a very good recommendation.

Way back in 1837, the government of New Brunswick brought in a new Act declaring that each county should have its own school board. The appointment for Kings County consisted of, David B. Wetmore, Isaac Perry, John T. Coffin, Rev. Elias Scovil and E. B. Smith as secretary.

From “Education 1792 - 1970  In Springfield, New Brunswick” by Ernest G. C. Graham, I learned the Board met on the third day of July 1837 in Kingston and let it be known, they would be examining all applicants for certificates in obtaining Teacher’s license. Applicants were to provide exceptional certificates of character and morals, otherwise, no attention would be paid to their application.

It seems many were turned down on account of spelling or their poor school practises.

From June of 1837 until May of 1838, 24 names were approved with four of them being women.

It would appear very little improvement was made in the educational standards as many of the school masters had little more education than the students.

In 1844 the government set up a commission of three men to look into public schools, church schools and private schools.

The man responsible for Kings County was James Brown of Charlotte County who kept a journal with reports on the schools, their teachers and the people.  In his publication Mr. Graham included some very interesting information from this journal concerning the schools in Springfield Parish.

For example: “On August 21, 1844, James Brown started his third day in the parish of Springfield by walking up the Stewarton Road which he said was criss-crossed by a little brook, going by the Kirk and on to Sara B. MacDonald’s school, District # 8. She was twenty years old and had been the teacher there for the last five years. She would be only fifteen when she  started. The school hours were from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. The school was built on Mr. Caldwell’s land by the people. Four boys and four girls were in attendance. The four family names registered were Young, Colwell, MacDonald and Cromwell.”

The listing of the pupils who attended in 1844 Eliza Ann Scott’s school at Hatfield’s Point, Alexander Machum’s School at White’s Corner and at George Winncett’s School at Belleisle Creek provides names of students that connect to several families of the area.

Education 1792 - 1970  In Springfield, New Brunswick by Ernest G. C. Graham provides not only information on the schools in that parish but of the Government’s involvement in education throughout the province, including the many issues that were raised and changes that took place in the way schools were built, furnished, organized and operated during the years.

This very informative book was published a few years ago and is available for viewing at several research institutions. It can be purchased from the Kings County Museum, 27 Centennial Road Unit 3, Hampton, NB, Canada, E5N 6N3. Telephone (506) 832-6009. E-mail

Query 1503
Hamm: Clarence James Hamm and his father James William Hamm owned and operated a Grocery Store and Meat business at 198 Rockland Road in Saint John north end in the 1940's.  I am seeking stories, pictures, or articles such as grocery slips or other paperwork.
52 Needle St., Sussex Corner
NB, Canada, E4E 2Z3   

Query 1504
Alward - Keith: Calvin Freese Alward, born 17 Oct 1850 at Havelock, Kings County, New Brunswick married Mina Elizabeth Keith. They lived in Butternut Ridge, Havelock before moving to California USA around the 1920s. Any information on his parents, grandparents, etc. would be appreciated. Has anyone done research on this Alward family line?
1716 Alpine Meadows Ln. #2001
Prescott, Arizona
86303, USA
New and Used Genealogical and Historical books of
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Ruby M. Cusack is a genealogy buff living in New Brunswick, Canada. Send your New Brunswick genealogical queries to her at:  Include your name and mailing address for the benefit of the readers of the newspaper who do not have access to E-mail but could have information to share with you. Please put "Query" followed by the surnames in your query. For more information on submitting queries, visit
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